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The break was between middle C and C-sharp, or outside of Iberia between B and C.
Broken keyboards reappeared in 1842 with the harmonium, the split occurring at E4/F4.
Many keyboard instruments dating from before the nineteenth century, such as harpsichords and pipe organs, have a keyboard with the colours of the keys reversed: the white notes are made of ebony and the black notes are covered with softer white bone.
A few electric and electronic instruments from the 1960s and subsequent decades have also done this; Vox's electronic organs of the 1960s, Farfisa's FAST portable organs, Hohner's Clavinet L, one version of Korg's Poly-800 synthesizer and Roland's digital harpsichords.
An organ pedalboard is a keyboard with long pedals that are played by the organist's feet. In a typical keyboard layout, black note keys have uniform width, and white note keys have uniform width and uniform spacing at the front of the keyboard.
Depressing a key on the keyboard causes the instrument to produce sounds, either by mechanically striking a string or tine (piano, electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe (organ), striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer).
Since the most commonly encountered keyboard instrument is the piano, the keyboard layout is often referred to as the "piano keyboard".
The bottom two illustrate the earlier "eight plus four" arrangement The chromatic compass of keyboard instruments has tended to increase.
Harpsichords often extended over five octaves (61 keys) in the 18th century, while most pianos manufactured since about 1870 have 88 keys.